The purpose of these two lessons/seminars is to illustrate the leading causes of hypoxemia in humans: hypoxia, hypoventilation, decreased lung diffusion capacity for oxygen, and alteration of the ventilation-perfusion ratio.
The oxygen cascade
Respiratory gas exchanges
Numerical analysis with mono-compartimental model of the relationship between ventilation and PAO2-PaO2.
Hypoventilation and hypoxemia.
Decreased oxygen diffusion capacity and hypoxemia.
Dempsey effect or Exercise Induced Arterial Hypoxemia.
Normobaric hypoxia and hypobaric hypoxia as causes of hypoxemia.
Distribution of the ventilation-perfusion ratio in the lung
The maldistribution of the ventilation-perfusion ratio as a cause of hypoxemia (bicompartmental model).
Th venous-arterial shunt as a cause of hypoxemia.
Quantification of alveolar dead space and wasted alveolar ventilation (Riley's three-compartment model).
Self learning test
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